Rumors and Fake News as “Improvised” News

fake news GIFrose mcgowan rumor GIF

Rumors are often believed by people to flourish in an environment of news blackouts and information famines, and thus, assumed to them diminish in an era of information overload. But the opposite seems to be the case. In contemporary information society, rumors seem to arise not from lack of information, but from an information overload (Kimmel, 2004).

coding the matrix GIF

In today’s globalization age characterized by liquidity and flows, information has become “liquid” and can swiftly penetrate the various domains of social life (Ritzer, 2010). Liquidity is a metaphor used by some globalists to explain the growing flexibility and mobility of things that is brought about by the current processes of globalization.

information GIF

Liquidity simply means that things, information and places are increasingly becoming light and thus easy to move from one location to another. Like water, “liquids” can easily “flow” to different locations with the capacity to change their form in order to adapt to the environment.

phoebe buffay GIF

With today’s globalization and technological innovation, almost all things have become so fluid and light that they travel in various spaces in blinding speed. In a similar manner, news, “fake news,” “alternative facts,” e-rumors, e-gossip, and other forms of content now mounted on digital and electronic platforms in the cyberspace flow like running water or liquid that penetrates dimensions almost all dimensions of social life. Corporate organizations are not spared from this tsunami of information that besieges the market and the workplace.

speed communication GIF

As information is easily and freely created, traded, edited, and manipulated to suit one’s interests, the veracity of their content declines resulting in the difficulty to know which news are “real,” “fake,” or “improvised” such as rumors and gossip. With information overload and the constant bombardment of the mind with unverified information from the Internet, people are deprived of the luxury of time and immediate means to swiftly investigate whether the posts, news, or information they received from and passed on to other people are totally or partially true or false. This also happens during crisis or emergency situations when information is absent or lacking to ascertain the truth. Knowledge means control. In business settings, sufficient information is good for managers and the corporate organizations they handle to achieve higher productivity and profit.

the rain point GIF by The Rain Netflix

Rumors and gossip do not normally emerge in moments of certainty where the corporate organization runs smoothly, but usually during times of crisis and unexpected change in the day-to-day operations of the company. Thus, rumors usually abound when a business firm faces or experiences bankruptcy, leadership change, mergers, buyouts, financial losses, labor problems or restructuring.

reporting conspiracy theory GIF by Rewire.org

For instance, when Twitter faces a buyout by other firms, rumors spread like a wildfire. When news leaked that Twitter will be the takeover target of the giant companies in September 2016, whispers were immediately and spread in the cyberspace. News spread that the engine company Google (Google parent Alphabet (GOOGL, Tech30), would take over the company, pushing the stock value of Twitter to 20% rise. But since no immediate confirmation came from Google, more speculations arise.

twitter GIF

CNBC mentioned that the business software company Salesforce.com might also be looking to buy Twitter, but no clarification what benefits Twitter would bring to this transaction. Later, other rumors surfaced that Verizon (VZ, Tech30) might be bidding for Twitter as well, but Verizon denied the speculation. Since no accurate information to rely on of who would buy Twitter, the rumors continued.

twitter omg GIF

The Media companies News Corp (NWSA) and 21st Century Fox (FOXA) — both controlled by Rupert Murdoch — have been cited as possible Twitter acquirers too. So has NBC parent company Comcast (CMCSA) as well as the Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal and former Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer — who are two of Twitter’s largest shareholders — could team up to take the company private. Again, in the absence of certainty, more rumors surfaced saying that the influential Silicon Valley investors Marc Andreessen and Silver Lake Partners could team up to buy Twitter and so on (La Monica, 2016, 23 Sep).

This case of Twitter buyout shows that rumors can immediately spin and become uncontrollable if no convincing and reliable information is available.

reporting conspiracy theory GIF by Rewire.org

The sociologist Tomatsu Shibutani notes that rumors or other forms of unverified information or “fake news” arise from uncertainty, from the absence of context and concrete information by which those affected by a crisis may understand its significance:

has the perfect guy GIF

“When activity is interrupted for want of adequate information, frustrated [people] must piece together some kind of definition, and rumor is the collective transaction through which they try to fill this gap. Far from being pathological, rumor is part and parcel of the efforts of [people] to come to terms with the exigencies of life (Doorley & Garcia, 2007).”

fix this star wars GIF by Hyper RPG

Thus, rumors  for Shibutani are “improvised news,” a tentative information created by people who are affected by uncertainty in order to gain control and to make sense of ambiguous situations or crises.

GIF Credits: Giphy.com

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About the Author:

Dr. Vivencio (Ven) O. Ballano is Associate Professor V of the Sociology Department of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP) in Manila. In 2011, he obtained his doctoral degree in Sociology from the Ateneo de Manila University. He was chosen Post-Doctoral Research Fellow of the Southeast Asian Studies Research Exchange Program (SEASREP). He is the author of the book Sociological Perspectives on Media Piracy in the Philippines and Vietnam published by Springer Singapore in 2016. Dr. Ballano’s specialized areas of teaching and research include sociology of law, religion, disaster management, corporate organization, and the Catholic Social Teaching. His current projects and interests include writing monographs and articles on rumors and gossip in corporate settings and the Catholic Social Teaching, as well as doing sociological research on film piracy and illegal camcording in the Philippines.

Continue reading “Rumors and Fake News as “Improvised” News”

Rumors and Fake News as “Improvised” News

 

fake news GIFrose mcgowan rumor GIF

Rumors are often believed by people to flourish in an environment of news blackouts and information famines, and thus, assumed to them diminish in an era of information overload. But the opposite seems to be the case. In contemporary information society, rumors seem to arise not from lack of information, but from an information overload (Kimmel, 2004).

coding the matrix GIF

In today’s globalization age characterized by liquidity and flows, information has become “liquid” and can swiftly penetrate the various domains of social life (Ritzer, 2010). Liquidity is a metaphor used by some globalists to explain the growing flexibility and mobility of things that is brought about by the current processes of globalization.

information GIF

Liquidity simply means that things, information and places are increasingly becoming light and thus easy to move from one location to another. Like water, “liquids” can easily “flow” to different locations with the capacity to change their form in order to adapt to the environment.

phoebe buffay GIF

With today’s globalization and technological innovation, almost all things have become so fluid and light that they travel in various spaces in blinding speed. In a similar manner, news, “fake news,” “alternative facts,” e-rumors, e-gossip, and other forms of content now mounted on digital and electronic platforms in the cyberspace flow like running water or liquid that penetrates dimensions almost all dimensions of social life. Corporate organizations are not spared from this tsunami of information that besieges the market and the workplace.

speed communication GIF

As information is easily and freely created, traded, edited, and manipulated to suit one’s interests, the veracity of their content declines resulting in the difficulty to know which news are “real,” “fake,” or “improvised” such as rumors and gossip. With information overload and the constant bombardment of the mind with unverified information from the Internet, people are deprived of the luxury of time and immediate means to swiftly investigate whether the posts, news, or information they received from and passed on to other people are totally or partially true or false. This also happens during crisis or emergency situations when information is absent or lacking to ascertain the truth. Knowledge means control. In business settings, sufficient information is good for managers and the corporate organizations they handle to achieve higher productivity and profit.

the rain point GIF by The Rain Netflix

Rumors and gossip do not normally emerge in moments of certainty where the corporate organization runs smoothly, but usually during times of crisis and unexpected change in the day-to-day operations of the company. Thus, rumors usually abound when a business firm faces or experiences bankruptcy, leadership change, mergers, buyouts, financial losses, labor problems or restructuring.

reporting conspiracy theory GIF by Rewire.org

For instance, when Twitter faces a buyout by other firms, rumors spread like a wildfire. When news leaked that Twitter will be the takeover target of the giant companies in September 2016, whispers were immediately and spread in the cyberspace. News spread that the engine company Google (Google parent Alphabet (GOOGL, Tech30), would take over the company, pushing the stock value of Twitter to 20% rise. But since no immediate confirmation came from Google, more speculations arise.

twitter GIF

CNBC mentioned that the business software company Salesforce.com might also be looking to buy Twitter, but no clarification what benefits Twitter would bring to this transaction. Later, other rumors surfaced that Verizon (VZ, Tech30) might be bidding for Twitter as well, but Verizon denied the speculation. Since no accurate information to rely on of who would buy Twitter, the rumors continued.

twitter omg GIF

The Media companies News Corp (NWSA) and 21st Century Fox (FOXA) — both controlled by Rupert Murdoch — have been cited as possible Twitter acquirers too. So has NBC parent company Comcast (CMCSA) as well as the Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal and former Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer — who are two of Twitter’s largest shareholders — could team up to take the company private. Again, in the absence of certainty, more rumors surfaced saying that the influential Silicon Valley investors Marc Andreessen and Silver Lake Partners could team up to buy Twitter and so on (La Monica, 2016, 23 Sep).

This case of Twitter buyout shows that rumors can immediately spin and become uncontrollable if no convincing and reliable information is available.

reporting conspiracy theory GIF by Rewire.org

The sociologist Tomatsu Shibutani notes that rumors or other forms of unverified information or “fake news” arise from uncertainty, from the absence of context and concrete information by which those affected by a crisis may understand its significance:

 

has the perfect guy GIF

“When activity is interrupted for want of adequate information, frustrated [people] must piece together some kind of definition, and rumor is the collective transaction through which they try to fill this gap. Far from being pathological, rumor is part and parcel of the efforts of [people] to come to terms with the exigencies of life (Doorley & Garcia, 2007).”

fix this star wars GIF by Hyper RPG

Thus, rumors  for Shibutani are “improvised news,” a tentative information created by people who are affected by uncertainty in order to gain control and to make sense of ambiguous situations or crises.

GIF Credits: Giphy.com

Thank you for reading this post. subscribe or follow this blog for more updates.

 

About the Author:

Dr. Vivencio (Ven) O. Ballano is Associate Professor V of the Sociology Department of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP) in Manila. In 2011, he obtained his doctoral degree in Sociology from the Ateneo de Manila University. He was chosen Post-Doctoral Research Fellow of the Southeast Asian Studies Research Exchange Program (SEASREP). He is the author of the book Sociological Perspectives on Media Piracy in the Philippines and Vietnam published by Springer Singapore in 2016. Dr. Ballano’s specialized areas of teaching and research include sociology of law, religion, disaster management, corporate organization, and the Catholic Social Teaching. His current projects and interests include writing monographs and articles on rumors and gossip in corporate settings and the Catholic Social Teaching, as well as doing sociological research on film piracy and illegal camcording in the Philippines.

Continue reading “Rumors and Fake News as “Improvised” News”

What is a True Love?

love.png

Fig. 1. “Attractive Young Couple In Love” by Serge Bertasius Photography (Image courtesy of FreeDigitalPhotos.net)

Introduction

Judge whether this short love note indicates true love or not:

(From the column “Joe the Mango’s LoveNotes” [unedited])

Dear Joe,

I find it hard to believe that broken dreams could become a part of my life. I’m truly sad for the simple reason that my life isn’t really doing fine. Once in a while, I look back to the past , trying to figure out what went wrong. At 22, I think I’ve had enough disappointments and frustration in life.

Remembering my school days, it seemed that everything was simple and easier then, the “home-school” routine may prove boring but I understand that’s part of growing up. Somehow, I realized learning is a life- long process, for there are bigger lessons in life to learn.

May 1995, I got my first job as a banker. Amidst my pressure-filled work days , I never thought love could come my way. It did but to my disappointment I eventually lost it. After all that’s been said and done, I’m still holding on to the memories.

I met Alfred and already liked him the first time I saw him. Even then, he showed signs of interests for me. Though we had no real relationship, I know he had done his part trying to get close to me. Out of foolishness, I was not able to express my real feelings for him. I pretended I didn’t care. Maybe I was afraid to take a chance, thinking what we felt was only temporary, considering most of our colleagues were against us. There were times when I intentionally avoided him. But I realized I was in love with him.

I thought that when I met Alfred, the right time had come. I was happy knowing that what I felt for Alfred was something real. Sad to say, nothing seemed right between us.

Each day was disappointing . We kept on fooling around and there were times when I thought of giving up everything, including my job. I never wanted to see him again and stop playing a game I know I’ll never win.

But I couldn’t let go. It took sometime for me to accept he’s not here anymore, that he will never come back to me.

How I wish I had let him known how much he meant to me. I wonder if he’s happy , now that he’s free. Somehow I can’t stop thinking there could be another chance for us to meet again. I’ll be waiting for that time.

How can I really face everyday that comes when my mind and heart still lament over the past? To forget the past is to forget Alfred. Joe, I really hope your words of advice can help me clear my mind.

Sincerely yours,
Laarni

Distinguish Infatuation from True Love

In order to appreciate the reality of true love, it is better that people must first distinguish between infatuation and real love. Infatuation is the earliest stage of falling in love or what people would commonly call as “love at first sight”. Infatuation is the intense feelings associated with falling in love. However, it starts and ends quickly. In infatuation, a person instantly falls in love with someone he or she knows nothing about. Thus, when he or she discovers after an initial encounter that his or her first date is different from what he or she expects, the intense feeling immediately evaporates and he or she moves on to find another partner. Relationship coach Chana Leviton characterized infatuation as a powerful connection to someone that leaves a person feeling out of control and possessed by his or her feelings. It strikes the person without warning by someone he or she may not have nothing in common or even dislike. Infatuation is irrational and unrealistic. Since the initial interaction with the person is too short to allow deeper acquaintance, the feelings of attraction in infatuation are superficial and based on false assumptions about the true character of the partner. Of course, there are cases that infatuation can also lead to true love. But more often it can result in frustration and separation after the initial encounter.

Since infatuation is a fleeting experience and feeling of falling in love, many social scientists do not consider this as “real” love. Moralists call infatuation as lust and not love in a sense that it is more sexual and self-centered. “Real” love is said to take time and is realistic. Infatuation is a fleeting feeling of intense attraction with no knowledge of real personality and character between partners. It can, at times, become a starting point for true love if the partner decides to continue their romantic relationship despite the initial discovery of incompatibilities, but in itself, infatuation can hardly be called a real mutual self-giving between partners.

“Real” love, on the one hand, has a positive effect on the person’s personality. Infatuation, on the other hand, has a disorganizing negative effect to the person falling in love. It can leave him or her unable to sleep, eat or concentrate. It can make him/her “possessive” and prone to bouts of jealousy. Real love, on the contrary, makes the person energetic, creative, and purposeful. It makes him or her trustful of the other and feel secure. So the real indicator whether the initial experience of falling in love is a mere infatuation or a real beginning of a true love seems to the type of effect or impact of the initial encounter of the partners in their daily life. If the general effect of the falling in love at the beginning is negative, i.e., the person loses control of his or her life of the intense feeling, then it is most likely an infatuation. But if the general effect is positive, i.e., the initial feeling of love makes the partners more inspired to reach their life goals, happy, and productive in their daily routine, then it is most likely the falling in love is not just an infatuation but probably the beginning of true romance, love, and commitment.

Romantic partners who share similar traits and level of attractiveness are more likely to end together for a longer period than those who look significantly different. Many social researchers believe that there is a pattern on how people choose their mates or romantic relationships. The matching hypothesis indicate that people who are more attracted to others who share a similar attraction level with them.

couple

Fig. 2 True love takes time and has a positive effect on personality (“Couple with their Girl Child Looking Upwards” by stockimages [Image courtesy of FreeDigitalPhotos.net])

 

What is True Love Joe?

boy-1299642_640

Introduction

Judge whether this short love note indicates true love or not:

(From the column “Joe the Mango’s LoveNotes” [unedited])

giraffe-3258053_640

Dear Joe,

I find it hard to believe that broken dreams could become a part of my life. I’m truly sad for the simple reason that my life isn’t really doing fine. Once in a while, I look back to the past , trying to figure out what went wrong. At 22, I think I’ve had enough disappointments and frustration in life.

Remembering my school days, it seemed that everything was simple and easier then, the “home-school” routine may prove boring but I understand that’s part of growing up. Somehow, I realized learning is a life- long process, for there are bigger lessons in life to learn.

May 1995, I got my first job as a banker. Amidst my pressure-filled work days , I never thought love could come my way. It did but to my disappointment I eventually lost it. After all that’s been said and done, I’m still holding on to the memories.

I met Alfred and already liked him the first time I saw him. Even then, he showed signs of interests for me. Though we had no real relationship, I know he had done his part trying to get close to me. Out of foolishness, I was not able to express my real feelings for him. I pretended I didn’t care. Maybe I was afraid to take a chance, thinking what we felt was only temporary, considering most of our colleagues were against us. There were times when I intentionally avoided him. But I realized I was in love with him.

I thought that when I met Alfred, the right time had come. I was happy knowing that what I felt for Alfred was something real. Sad to say, nothing seemed right between us.

Each day was disappointing . We kept on fooling around and there were times when I thought of giving up everything, including my job. I never wanted to see him again and stop playing a game I know I’ll never win.

But I couldn’t let go. It took sometime for me to accept he’s not here anymore, that he will never come back to me.

How I wish I had let him known how much he meant to me. I wonder if he’s happy , now that he’s free. Somehow I can’t stop thinking there could be another chance for us to meet again. I’ll be waiting for that time.

How can I really face everyday that comes when my mind and heart still lament over the past? To forget the past is to forget Alfred. Joe, I really hope your words of advice can help me clear my mind.

Sincerely yours,
Laarni

angel-1299496_640

Distinguishing Infatuation from True Love

In order to appreciate the reality of true love, it is better that people must first distinguish between infatuation and real love. Infatuation is the earliest stage of falling in love or what people would commonly call as “love at first sight”. Infatuation is the intense feelings associated with falling in love. However, it starts and ends quickly. In infatuation, a person instantly falls in love with someone he or she knows nothing about. Thus, when he or she discovers after an initial encounter that his or her first date is different from what he or she expects, the intense feeling immediately evaporates and he or she moves on to find another partner. Relationship coach Chana Leviton characterized infatuation as a powerful connection to someone that leaves a person feeling out of control and possessed by his or her feelings. It strikes the person without warning by someone he or she may not have nothing in common or even dislike. Infatuation is irrational and unrealistic. Since the initial interaction with the person is too short to allow deeper acquaintance, the feelings of attraction in infatuation are superficial and based on false assumptions about the true character of the partner. Of course, there are cases that infatuation can also lead to true love. But more often it can result in frustration and separation after the initial encounter.

cat-3299628_640

Since infatuation is a fleeting experience and feeling of falling in love, many social scientists do not consider this as “real” love. Moralists call infatuation as lust and not love in a sense that it is more sexual and self-centered. “Real” love is said to take time and is realistic. Infatuation is a fleeting feeling of intense attraction with no knowledge of real personality and character between partners. It can, at times, become a starting point for true love if the partner decides to continue their romantic relationship despite the initial discovery of incompatibilities, but in itself, infatuation can hardly be called a real mutual self-giving between partners.

wedding-23826_640

“Real Love”

“Real” love, on the one hand, has a positive effect on the person’s personality. Infatuation, on the other hand, has a disorganizing negative effect to the person falling in love. It can leave him or her unable to sleep, eat or concentrate. It can make him/her “possessive” and prone to bouts of jealousy. Real love, on the contrary, makes the person energetic, creative, and purposeful. It makes him or her trustful of the other and feel secure. So the real indicator whether the initial experience of falling in love is a mere infatuation or a real beginning of a true love seems to the type of effect or impact of the initial encounter of the partners in their daily life. If the general effect of the falling in love at the beginning is negative, i.e., the person loses control of his or her life of the intense feeling, then it is most likely an infatuation. But if the general effect is positive, i.e., the initial feeling of love makes the partners more inspired to reach their life goals, happy, and productive in their daily routine, then it is most likely the falling in love is not just an infatuation but probably the beginning of true romance, love, and commitment.

cartoon-1300901_640

Romantic partners who share similar traits and level of attractiveness are more likely to end together for a longer period than those who look significantly different. Many social researchers believe that there is a pattern on how people choose their mates or romantic relationships. The matching hypothesis indicate that people who are more attracted to others who share a similar attraction level with them.

Photo Credit: Pixabay.com

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Don’t Worry while Waiting Your Turn in Life  

sunset-3084651_640 (2)
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The song of Diana Ross entitled “It’s My Turn” reminds us that we just have to wait for our turn to achieve what we want in life. Society has opportunity structure for us. We just have to wait for our turn. When it comes, we can be proud to say:

“…It’s my turn
To see what I can see
I hope you’ll understand
This time’s just for me

Because it’s my turn
With no apologies
I’ve given up the truth
To those I’ve tried to please

But now it’s my turn
If I don’t have all the answers
At least I know I’ll take my share of chances
Ain’t no use of holding on
When nothing stays the same….”

Yes, life is always in a state of flux! It can sometimes become cruel to us. It has its ups and downs. We have to wait for our turn to allow life to bring us up when we’re down. It rarely provides an opportunity for things we immediately want to address our problems. After a painful break-up, for instance, with a romantic partner, we immediately wish to find someone who is much better and loving than the person who causes us pain to stop the hurt inside our hearts. Or after being bullied by a person or group when we’re young in school, we wish to find power and support to depend  ourselves and assert our right! Or after a devastating defeat in a major contest or competition when we’re humiliated in front of a lonely crowd, we immediately want that the event could have been reversed and we be declared a sure winner!

Just Wait, Society has Opportunity Structure!

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But life does not work the way we want it to be. It has its own opportunity structure conditioned by social forces of society we’re living in. We just have to wait for our turn to be raised in the platform of success and public admiration! Jack Ma, one of the richest men in China and the founder of the Alibaba Group, was rejected many times by Harvard Business School for his applications. He encountered a series of failures in building his business empire but remained persistent and waited for his turn to achieve success! I also know a fine lady who underwent a series of frustrations with her former boyfriends and eventually married a decent and religious man. They are now living happily as a couple in the United States. Steve Jobs was also struggling before his innovative ideas became a reality. But it took years of patience and perseverance before his vision of Apple became a success!

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Waiting for society to give us the right opportunity does not mean being passive. While waiting, we have to do our part to prepare for the upcoming “break” society can offer us to succeed. Since society has its own opportunity structure, we have to prepare ourselves for the right “turn” society would offer us. If one is experiencing a failed relationship, he or she must do something to forget the past and move on to find the right partner in life! S/he must place himself/herself in situations which can allow him/her to interact with people who can offer him/her the right love and affection. So also with people who experience failures in business. They have to find ways and prepare for the next opportunity to come!

Waiting One’s Turn and Humility

aisle-altar-arches-226345

Waiting for our turn for opportunity to favor us and accept that there are things in life that we cannot immediately change requires a virtue called humility. People who encounter a series of problems  indicates a lack of humility. Recklessness is sometimes a fruit of pride and lack of humility and acceptance that we are just a cog in a big machine called society. Humility and right timing is the key in solving one’s problem and attaining success! And when society’s opportunity structure opens up again and offer us the road to success and happiness, we can bravely say:

“…It’s my turn
To see what I can see
I hope you’ll understand
This time’s just for me

Because it’s my turn
With no apologies
I’ve given up the truth
To those I’ve tried to please…”

change ahead

Christ says: “Do Not Worry, You are More than What You Eat”

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25 “Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat or drink; or about your body, what you will wear. Is not life more than food, and the body more than clothes? 26 Look at the birds of the air; they do not sow or reap or store away in barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not much more valuable than they? 27 Can any one of you by worrying add a single hour to your lifea]”>[a]?

28 “And why do you worry about clothes? See how the flowers of the field grow. They do not labor or spin. 29 Yet I tell you that not even Solomon in all his splendor was dressed like one of these. 30 If that is how God clothes the grass of the field, which is here today and tomorrow is thrown into the fire, will he not much more clothe you—you of little faith? 31 So do not worry, saying, ‘What shall we eat?’ or ‘What shall we drink?’ or ‘What shall we wear?’ 32 For the pagans run after all these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them. 33 But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well. 34 Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own” (Matthew 6: 25-34).

Photo credit: Pexels.com, Pixabay.com, and Shutterstock.com

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